Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. Metformin is used together with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is sometimes used together with insulin or other medications, but it is not for treating type 1 diabetes. You should not use metformin if you have severe kidney disease, metabolic acidosis, or diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment). If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you will need to temporarily stop taking metformin. Though extremely rare, you may develop lactic acidosis, a dangerous build-up of lactic acid in your blood. Call your doctor or get emergency medical help if you have unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, stomach pain, dizziness, feeling cold, or feeling very weak or tired. There is a community of self-experimenters who are taking the drug Metformin, not because they are diabetic or prediabetic, the FDA-approved reasons for prescribing the drug, but rather because they believe it probably has an impact in promoting general health and retarding aging(ref). In fact, it is probably the pharmaceutical most used for this purpose. The purpose of this blog entry is to discuss Metformin as it has been shown to reduce all cause mortality in various studies, and discuss its understood mechanisms of operation. This blog entry is Part 2 of interventions that reduce all cause mortality. Metformin is a traditional and inexpensive drug that is the first line of treatment for people with Type 2 Diabetes or prediabetic conditions. The first blog entry in this series, which was also Part 4 of the inflammation series. It is a drug that has been extensively studied, both with respect to the impacts of using it and as to the molecular mechanisms of its operations. Image source Metformin “originates from the French lilac or ”“Metformin has been used for over 40 years as an effective glucose-lowering agent in type 2 DM. Typically it reduces both basal and post-prandial hyperglycaemia by about 25-30% on over 90% of type 2 DM patients when given either alone or in combination with other therapies —”(ref)Clinical trials of Metformin Clinical lists 1989 clinical trials mentioning Metformin but only three clinical trials mentioning Metformin and longevity. One is called the Metformin in Longevity Study (MILES)sponsored by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine is currently listed as active but not recruiting and is the only study where aging is the unique endpoint condition.
The diabetes drug metformin could increase life expectancy and improve the health of older people. Although the drug's anti-aging properties have so far only been tested on animals, human trials are planned for 2016. If the effects are the same in humans as they have been in animal studies, it may be possible for people to live healthily into their 120s. Metformin could also be used to slow or prevent the development of diseases related to aging, such as some cases of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers disease, which is associated with diabetes. "If you target an aging process and you slow down aging then you slow down all the diseases and pathology of aging as well," said Professor Gordon Lithgow, of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in California, one of the study's advisors. "I have been doing research into aging for 25 years and the idea that we would be talking about a clinical trial in humans for an anti-aging drug would have been thought inconceivable. "But there is every reason to believe it's possible," Lithgow continued. Some people take Metformin not for the FDA approved reasons for prescribing the drug, rather as they believe it can probably have an impact in promoting general health and slow the aging process, it is probably the pharmaceutical most used for those purposes. Metformin has been listing in 1989 clinical trials, but only mentioned in 3 clinical trials on longevity: 1) The Metformin In Longevity Study; 2) Metformin and Longevity Genes In Pre-Diabetics; and 3) Metformin And Longevity. The Targeting Aging With Metformin is a clinical trial being sponsored by the American Federation of Aging Research which has been approved by the FDA. This will include 2 populations of subjects on of 1500 receiving metformin and another on placebo to investigate whether metformin delays onset of age related diseases ot precursor to conditions. Subjects will be in the age group of 70-80, residing within the USA who will be followed for 5 years. One 20 year old prospective study of metformin vs other conventional therapies for type 2 diabetes which included over 5,000 patients showed a 36% reduction in all cause mortality as compared to conventional therapy. However not all studies show such a dramatic effect.
Metformin, a widely used first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), has been shown to extend lifespan and delay the onset of age-related diseases. However, its primary locus of action remains unclear. Using a pure in vitro reconstitution system, we demonstrate that metformin acts through the v-ATPase-Ragulator lysosomal pathway to coordinate m TORC1 and AMPK, two hubs governing metabolic programs. We further show in Caenorhabditis elegans that both v-ATPase-mediated TORC1 inhibition and v-ATPase-AXIN/LKB1-mediated AMPK activation contribute to the lifespan extension effect of metformin. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of metformin regulated healthspan extension will boost its therapeutic application in the treatment of human aging and age-related diseases. As humans are living for longer, age-related diseases – including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cognitive disorders – are becoming more common. Many research groups are therefore trying to find drugs that might prevent these diseases or make them less harmful. By David Mc New Medical researchers say that the drug metformin, used for treating type 2 diabetes, could become the world’s first anti-aging drug that enables adults to live well beyond 120 years. According to experts, the drug could extend healthy life and lifespan, and stave off illnesses associated with aging, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Scientists believe that metformin, the world’s most widely-used diabetes drug, is a good candidate for an anti-aging drug because tests conducted using animals demonstrated the ability of the drug to slow down the aging process. Metformin, which suppresses glucose production in the liver and increases sensitivity to insulin, has been used for more than six decades to treat type 2 diabetes and is considered a safe drug for humans. Recent tests, which show that metformin prolongs the lifespan and health of certain species of worms and strains of laboratory mice, have sparked interest in the drug as a possible anti-aging drug. A series of tests, conducted by a team of Belgian researchers on a species of roundworms, C. elegans, found that metformin prolonged the lives of the roundworms by making them age more slowly and keeping them healthier for longer. also pointed to anecdotal evidence that human patients treated with metformin for diabetes live longer than expected, often longer than people without diabetes.
Metformin also extends the lifespan of nematodes, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. A recent high impact study demonstrated that metformin. Metformin reduces all cause mortality and may extend lifespan There is a community of self-experimenters who are taking the drug Metformin, not because they are diabetic or prediabetic, the FDA-approved reasons for prescribing the drug, but rather because they believe it probably has an impact in promoting general health and retarding aging ref.