Have a wide range of applications in critically ill patients. As a group these drugs offer effects that include sedation, anxiolysis, and anticonvulsant activity, with minor cardiovascular and respiratory effects. They can be used as part of an anesthetic induction protocol for balanced anesthesia, with analgesic drugs to enhance patient comfort and sedation, as well as treatment of status epilepticus. The most commonly used benzodiazepine in veterinary medicine is diazepam, although midazolam appears to be growing in popularity. are used as tranquilizers, hypnotics, anesthetics, anticonvulsants or muscle relaxants and belong to the most frequently prescribed drugs. They may reduce the fitness to drive a car or to work at machines and they may lead to addiction or severe intoxications, especially in combination with alcohol. Therefore, screening for potentiate the actions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of the two main inhibitory amino acid transmitters in the brain (glycine being the other). They provide skeletal muscle relaxation to facilitate intubation of the trachea and controlled mechanical ventilation, and they provide optimal operating conditions. These drugs interfere with the transmission of impulses from motor nerves to muscle at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. Before the introduction of into anesthesia, skeletal muscle relaxation was obtained during surgery by inducing deeper levels of anesthesia. Along with muscle relaxation, a greatly increased incidence of complications, morbidity, and mortality was seen. With the introduction of is used frequently in the operating room to aid in intubation. Patients undergoing inpatient dental procedures performed under general anesthesia may receive succinylcholine for intubation and may, if necessary, receive other longer-acting block. In dual block, the membrane is depolarized (phase I) and is then slowly repolarized.Muscle Relaxers" and Benzodiazepines." />
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium). receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. High doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines may also cause anterograde amnesia and dissociation. Benzodiazepines are categorized as either short-, intermediate-, or long-acting. Short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines are preferred for the treatment of insomnia; longer-acting benzodiazepines are recommended for the treatment of anxiety. Benzodiazepines are generally viewed as safe and effective for short-term use, although cognitive impairment and paradoxical effects such as aggression or behavioral disinhibition occasionally occur. Historical background The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche , which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963. Mechanism of action Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA-A), resulting in sedative , hypnotic ( sleep-inducing ), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant , and muscle relaxant properties. Benzodiazepines act preferentially on midbrain ascending reticular formation( which maintains wakefulness) and on limbic system (thought and mental functions). Muscle relaxation is produced by a primary medullary site of action. Benzodiazepines act by enhancing presynaptic/postsynaptic inhibition through a specific BZD receptor which is an integral part of the GABA A receptor- Cl channel complex. The subunits of this complex forms a transmembrane anion channel gated by the primary ligand (GABA), and modulated by secondary ligands which include benzodiazepines. The binding sites of GABA is located on the β subunit, while the ά subunit contains the BZD binding site.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate symptoms such as muscle spasms, pain, and hyperreflexia. The term "muscle relaxant" is used to refer to two major therapeutic groups: neuromuscular blockers and spasmolytics. Neuromuscular blockers act by interfering with transmission at the neuromuscular end plate and have no central nervous system (CNS) activity. They are often used during surgical procedures and in intensive care and emergency medicine to cause temporary paralysis. Spasmolytics, also known as "centrally acting" muscle relaxants, are used to alleviate musculoskeletal pain and spasms and to reduce spasticity in a variety of neurological conditions. While both neuromuscular blockers and spasmolytics are often grouped together as muscle relaxants, The earliest known use of muscle relaxant drugs was by natives of the Amazon Basin in South America who used poison-tipped arrows that produced death by skeletal muscle paralysis. Benzodiazepines have gained growing popularity as its physiology and pharmacology have become better understood, allowing for drugs of varying potency and duration of action to be developed for a wide range of clinical applications. Muscle relaxants are a diverse group of drugs designed to treat pain related to muscle spasms or spasticity. While benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants are generally well tolerated, there are serious side effects and toxicity that practitioners must be aware of, as well as abuse potential.
This review details the present knowledge about BZD mechanisms of action. As an adjunct to antiseizure therapy or for muscle relaxation, 2-10 mg orally up. A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Mechanism of action.