Metformin belongs to the class of medications called oral hypoglycemics, which are medications that lower blood sugar. It is used to control blood glucose (blood sugar) for people with type 2 diabetes. It is used when diet, exercise, and weight reduction have not been found to lower blood glucose well enough on their own. Metformin works by reducing the amount of glucose made by the liver and by making it easier for glucose to enter into the tissues of the body. Metformin has been found to be especially useful in delaying problems associated with diabetes for overweight people with diabetes. This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. Metformin (brand names Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Riomet, Fortamet, Glumetza) is a member of a class of medicines known as biguanides. (By comparison, metformin has been used in Europe since the 1960’s.) The U. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required large safety studies of metformin, the results of which demonstrated that the development of lactic acidosis as a result of metformin therapy is very rare. This type of medicine was first introduced into clinical practice in the 1950’s with a drug called phenformin. This situation most likely slowed the approval of metformin, which was not used in the U. (A finding that has been confirmed in many other clinical trials to date.) Of note, the FDA officer involved in removing phenformin from the market recently wrote an article highlighting the safety of metformin. Unfortunately, phenformin was found to be associated with lactic acidosis, a serious and often fatal condition, and was removed from the U. Metformin works primarily by decreasing the amount of glucose made by the liver. It does this by activating a protein known as AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK. This protein acts much like an “energy sensor,” setting off cellular activities that result in glucose storage, enhanced entry of glucose into cells, and decreased creation of fatty acids and cholesterol. A secondary effect of the enhanced entry of glucose into cells is improved glucose uptake and increased storage of glycogen (a form of glucose) by the muscles. Additionally, the decrease in fatty acid levels brought about by metformin may indirectly improve insulin resistance and beta cell function.
GLUCOPHAGE tablets contain 500 mg, 850 mg, or 1000 mg of metformin. and 850 mg tablets contains hypromellose and the coating for the 1000 mg tablet. Generic Description, Brand Description, Strength, Package Size, Form, NDC. METFORMIN HCL 1000MG TAB HERITAGE, GLUCOPHAGE 1000MG TAB.